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NEW:
Geographic Distribution of Ticks in the United States - CDC Maps 2012

IDSA Lyme Disease Guidelines Specific References Used

(By Section)


OBJECTIVE

1.  Wormser GP, Fish D. Lyme disease. In: Baddour L, Gorbach SL, editors. Therapy of

    infectious diseases. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. p. 697-719.

2. 

Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents: April 7, 2005. Available at: http://www.AIDSinfo.nih.gov/. Accessed 1 August 2005. 

3. 

Gross PA, Barrett TL, Dellinger EP, et al. Purpose of quality standards for infectious diseases. Clin Infect Dis 1994; 18:421. 

4. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lyme disease–United States, 2001–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2004; 53:365–9. 

5. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 52(Suppl):1–85. 



PREVENTION OF TICK BITES


6. 

Hayes EB, Piesman J. How can we prevent Lyme disease? N Engl J Med 2003; 348:2424–30. 

7. 

Needham GR. Evaluation of five popular methods for tick removal. Pediatrics 1985; 75:997–1002. 

8. 

Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing. Scand J Infect Dis 2005; 37:361–4. 

9. 

Fishbein DB, Dennis DT. Tick-borne diseases—a growing risk. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:452–3.  

10. 

Fradin MS. Mosquitoes and mosquito repellents: a clinician's guide. Ann Intern Med 1998; 128:931–40.

11. 

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs. Using insect repellents safely (EPA-735/F-93-052R). Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 1996.

12. 

Carroll JF, Klun JA, Debboun M. Repellency of DEET and SS220 applied to skin involves olfactory sensing by two species of ticks. Med Vet Entomol 2005; 19:101–6. 

13. 

Centers for Disease Control. Seizures temporally associated with use of DEET insect repellent: New York and Connecticut. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1989; 38:678–80.

14. 

Insect repellents. Med Lett Drug Ther 2003; 45:41–2.  

15. 

Koren G, Matsui D, Bailey B. DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women. CMAJ 2003; 169:209–12.

16. 

Taplin D, Meinking TL. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids in dermatology. Arch Dermatol 1990; 126:213–21. 

17. 

Insect repellents. Med Lett Drug Ther 1989; 31:45–7. 

18. 

Picaridin—a new insect repellent. Med Lett Drug Ther 2005; 47:46–7.  

19. 

Vazquez M, Cartter MJ, Shapiro ED. Effectiveness of personal protective measures for Lyme disease [abstract 1866]. Pediatr Res 2003; 53:327A. 

20. 

Poland GA. Prevention of Lyme disease: a review of the literature. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76:713–24.  

21. 

Wormser GP. Prevention of Lyme borreliosis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2005; 117:385–91.    

22. 

Ley C, Olshen EM, Reingold AL. Case-control study of risk factors for incident Lyme disease in California. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 142(Suppl 9):S39–47.


PROPHYLAXIS OF LYME DISEASE

23. 

Steere AC, Sikand VK, Meurice F, et al. Vaccination against Lyme disease with recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein A with adjuvant. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:209–15. 

24. 

Krause PJ, Telford SR III, Spielman A, et al. Concurrent Lyme disease and babesiosis: evidence for increased severity and duration of illness. JAMA 1996; 275:1657–60. 

25. 

Nadelman RB, Horowitz HW, Hsieh T-C, et al. Simultaneous human ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:27–30.   

26. 

Krause PJ, McKay K, Thompson CA, et al. Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tick-borne zoonoses: babesiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34:1184–91.

27. 

Belongia EA, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of early Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:1472–7.

28. 

Steere AC, McHugh G, Suarez C, Huitt J, Damle N, Sikand VK. Prospective study of coinfection in patients with erythema migrans. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:1078–81.  

29. 

Campbell GL, Fritz CL, Fish D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Estimation of the incidence of Lyme disease. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148:1018–26. 

30. 

Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Fish D, et al. Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:79–84.  

31. 

Costello CM, Steere AC, Pinkerton RE, Feder HM Jr. A prospective study of tick bites in an endemic area for Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1989; 159:136–9. 

32. 

Shapiro ED, Gerber MA, Holabird ND, et al. A controlled trial of antimicrobial prophylaxis for Lyme disease after deer-tick bites. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:1769–73. 

33. 

Agre F, Schwartz R. The value of early treatment of deer tick bite for the prevention of Lyme disease. Am J Dis Child 1993; 147:945–7. |

34. 

Warshafsky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Kamer RS, Peterson SJ, Wormser GP. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of Lyme disease: a meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med 1996; 11:329–33. 

35. 

Takafuji ET, Kirkpatrick JW, Miller RN, et al. An efficacy trial of doxycycline chemoprophylaxis against leptospirosis. N Engl J Med 1984; 310:497–500. 

36. 

Zeidner NS, Brandt KS, Dadey E, Dolan MC, Happ C, Piesman J. Sustained-release formulation of doxycycline hyclate for prophylaxis of tick bite infection in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48:2697–9.

37. 

Lee J, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. What amoxicillin regimen is predicted to be equivalent to a single 200 mg oral dose of doxycycline for prevention of Lyme borreliosis [abstract P208]? In: Program and abstracts of the 10th International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-borne Diseases (Vienna, Austria). Austrian Society for Hygeine, Microbiology, and Preventive Medicine, 2005:122. 

38. 

Magid D, Schwartz B, Craft J, Schwartz JS. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites—a cost effectiveness analysis. N Engl J Med 1992; 327:534–41.

39. 

Nowakowski J, Wormser GP. Treatment of early Lyme disease: infection associated with erythema migrans. In: Coyle PPK, ed. Lyme disease. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1993:149–62. 

40. 

Hunfeld K-P, Kraiczy P, Kekoukh E, Schafer V, Brade V. Standardized in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi against well-known and newly developed antimicrobial agents—possible implications for new therapeutic approaches to Lyme disease. Int J Med Microbiol 2002; 291(Suppl 33):125–37. |

41. 

Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Conaty SM, Platkin SP, Luft BJ. Amoxicillin plus probenecid versus doxycycline for treatment of erythema migrans borreliosis. Lancet 1990; 336:1404–6.

42. 

Massarotti EM, Luger SW, Rahn DW, et al. Treatment of early Lyme disease. Am J Med 1992; 92:396–403.  

43. 

Luft BJ, Dattwyler RJ, Johnson RC, et al. Azithromycin compared with amoxicillin in the treatment of erythema migrans: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:785–91. 

44. 

Steere AC, Levin RE, Molloy PJ, et al. Treatment of Lyme arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37:878–88.

45. 

Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Strle F. Development of erythema migrans in spite of treatment with antibiotics after a tick bite. Wien Klin Wochenchr 2002; 114:616–9. 

46. 

Schlesinger PA, Duray PH, Burke SA, Steere AC, Stillman MT. Maternal-fetal transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Ann Intern Med 1985; 103:67–8. 

47. 

Maraspin V, Cimperman J, Lotric-Furlan S, Pleterski-Rigler D, Strle F. Treatment of erythema migrans in pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 22:788–93.

48. 

Williams CL, Strobino B, Weinstein A, Spierling P, Medici F. Maternal Lyme disease and congenital malformation: a cord blood serosurvey in endemic and control areas. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1995; 9:320–30. 

49. 

Strobino BA, Williams CL, Abid S, Chalson R, Spierling P. Lyme disease and pregnancy outcome: a prospective study of two thousand prenatal patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 169:367–74. 

50. 

Shapiro ED, Gerber MA. Lyme disease. In: Remington JS, Klein JO, Wilson CB, Baker CJ, eds. Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2006:485–97. 

51. 

Gerber MA, Zalneraitis EL. Childhood neurologic disorders and Lyme disease during pregnancy. Pediatr Neurol 1994; 11:41–3. 

52. 

Spielman A, Wilson ML, Levine JF, Piesman J. Ecology of Ixodes dammini–borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease. Annu Rev Entomol 1985; 30:439–60. 

53. 

Pusterla N, Leutenegger CM, Chae JS, et al. Quantitative evaluation of ehrlichial burden in horses after experimental transmission of human granulocytic Ehrlichia agent by intravenous inoculation with infected leukocytes and by infected ticks. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37:4042–4. 

54. 

Wang G, Liveris D, Brei B, et al. Real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi in field-collected Ixodes scapularis ticks from the northeastern United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69:4561–5.

55. 

Tsao JI, Wootton JT, Bunikis J, Luna MG, Fish D, Barbour AG. An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101:18159–64.  

56. 

Daniels TJ, Boccia TM, Varde S, et al. Geographic risk for Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Southern New York State. Appl Environ Microbiol 1998; 64:4663–9. 

57. 

Eisen RJ, Mun J, Eisen L, Lane RS. Life stage–related differences in density of questing ticks and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within a single cohort of Ixodes pacificus2004; 41:768–73. (Acari:Ixodidae). J Med Entomol

58. 

Lane RS, Quistad GB. Borreliacidal factor in the blood of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). J Parasitol 1998; 84:29–34. 

59. 

Ullmann AJ, Lane RS, Kurtenbach K, et al. Bacteriolytic activity of selected vertebrate sera for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia bissettii. J Parasitol 2003; 89:1256–7.

60. 

Piesman J, Clark KL, Dolan MC, Happ CM, Burkot TR. Geographic survey of vector ticks (I. scapularis and I. pacificus) for infection with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Vector Ecol 1999; 24:91–8. 

61. 

Clark K. Borrelia species in host-seeking ticks and small mammals in Florida. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:5076–86. 

62. 

Oliver JH Jr, Clark KL, Chandler FW Jr, et al. Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38:120–4.

63. 

Piesman J. Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North America. In: Gray J, Lane RS, Stanek G, eds. Lyme borreliosis: biology, epidemiology, and control. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International, 2002:223–49. 

64. 

Dennis D. Rash decisions: Lyme disease, or not? Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:966–8. 

65. 

Wormser GP, Masters E, Nowakowski J, et al. Prospective clinical evaluation of patients from Missouri and New York with erythema migrans–like skin lesions. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:958–65. 

66. 

James AM, Liveris D, Wormser GP, Schwartz I, Montecalvo MA, Johnson BJB. Borrelia lonestari infection after a bite by an Amblyomma americanum tick. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:1810–4.  

67. 

Wormser GP, Masters E, Liveris D, et al. Microbiologic evaluation of patients from Missouri with erythema migrans. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:423–8.  

68. 

Sood SK, Salzman MB, Johnson BJB, et al. Duration of tick attachment as a predictor of the risk of Lyme disease in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic. J Infect Dis 1997; 175:996–9. 

69. 

Falco RC, Fish D, Piesman J. Duration of tick bites in a Lyme disease–endemic area. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143:187–92. 

70. 

Cook RJ, Sackett DL. Number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ 1995; 310:452–4. 

71. 

Schwartz I, Fish D, Daniels TJ. Prevalence of the rickettsial agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in ticks from a hyperendemic focus of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:49–50. 

72. 

Falco RC, McKenna DF, Daniels TJ, et al. Temporal relation between Ixodes scapularis1999; 149:771–6.  abundance and risk for Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans. Am J Epidemiol

73. 

Piesman J, Mather TN, Sinsky RJ, Spielman A. Duration of tick attachment and Borrelia burgdorferi transmission. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25:557–8. 

74. 

Piesman J, Maupin GO, Campos EG, Happ CM. Duration of adult female Ixodes damminiBorrelia burgdorferi with description of a needle aspiration isolation method. J Infect Dis 1991; 163:895–7.  attachment and transmission of

75. 

Peavey CA, Lane RS. Transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by Ixodes pacificus nymphs and reservoir competence of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) infected by tick-bite. J Parasitol 1995; 81:175–8. 

76. 

Ohnishi J, Piesman J, de Silva AM. Antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi populations transmitted by ticks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98:670–5. 

77. 

Ribeiro JM, Mather TN, Piesman J, Spielman A. Dissemination and salivary delivery of Lyme disease spirochetes in vector ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 1987; 24:201–5. 

78. 

Kahl O, Janetzki-Mitttman C, Gray JS, Jonas R, Stein J, de Boer R. Risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for a host in relation to the duration of nymphal Ixodes ricinus1998; 287:41–52.  feeding and the method of tick removal. Zentralbl Bakteriol

79. 

Crippa M, Rais O, Gern L. Investigations on the mode and dynamics of transmission and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2002; 2:3–9.

80. 

Piesman J, Spielman A. Human babesiosis on Nantucket Island: prevalence of Babesia microti in ticks. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1980; 29:742–6. 

81. 

Das S, Deponte K, Marcantonio NL, et al. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in tick-immune guinea pigs. Infect Immun 1998; 66:1803–5. 

82. 

Telford SR, Dawson JE, Katavolos P, Warmer CK, Kolbert CP, Persing DH. Perpetuation of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis deer tick-rodent cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93:6209–14.  

83. 

des Vignes F, Piesman J, Heffernan R , Schulze TL, Stafford KC III, Fish D. Effect of tick removal on transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis nymphs. J Infect Dis 2001; 183:773–8.  

84. 

Saltzman MB, Rubin LG, Sood SK. Prevention of Lyme disease after tick bites [letter]. N Engl J Med 1993; 328:137. 

85. 

Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Nadelman RB, Falco RC, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Wormser GP. Evaluation of an interactive training program on Lyme disease for health care providers [abstract P-78]. In: Program and abstracts of the 9th International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-borne Diseases (New York). New York: New York Medical College and Imedex, 2003

86. 

Falco RC, McKenna D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman R, Wormser GP, Daniels TJ. Evaluation of patient assessment of tick bite duration and eligibility for Lyme disease prophylaxis in a clinical setting [abstract P203]. In: Programs and abstracts of the 10th International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-borne Diseases (Vienna, Austria). Austrian Society for Hygeine, Microbiology, and Preventive Medicine, 2005:120. 

87. 

Gerber MA, Shapiro Ed, Burke GS, et al. Lyme disease in children in southeastern Connecticut. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1270–4.  

88. 

Wormser GP, McKenna D, Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Weinstein A. Lyme disease in children [letter]. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:1107.

89. 

Sigal LH, Zahradnik JM, Lavin P, et al. A vaccine consisting of recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A to prevent Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:216–22.

90. 

Berger BW. Dermatologic manifestations of Lyme disease. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11(Suppl 6):S1475–81. 

91. 

Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Forseter G, et al. The clinical spectrum of early Lyme borreliosis in patients with culture positive erythema migrans. Am J Med 1996; 100:502–8.  

92. 

Melski JW, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Barth GD. Primary and secondary erythema migrans in central Wisconsin. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129:709–16.  

93. 

Steere AC, Bartenhagen NH, Craft JE, et al. The early clinical manifestations of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99:76–82. 

94. 

Bakken JS, Krueth J, Wilson-Nordskog C, Tilden RL, Asanovich K, Dumler JS. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. JAMA 1996; 275:199–205. 

95. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Horowitz HW, Wormser GP, et al. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: a case series from a single medical center in New York State. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:904–8. 

96. 

White DJ, Talarico J, Chang H-G, Birkhead GS, Heimberger T, Morse DL. Human babesiosis in New York State: review of 139 hospitalized cases and analysis of prognostic factors. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:2149–54. 

97. 

Steere AC, Sikand VK, Schoen RT, Nowakowski J. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37:528–32.  

98. 

Brown SL, Hansen SL, Langone JJ. Role of serology in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. JAMA 1999; 282:62–6.

99. 

Wormser GP, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Nadelman RB. Lyme disease serology: problems and opportunities. JAMA 1999; 282:79–80.  

100. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Roberge J, Carbonaro CA, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Effects of Osp A vaccination on Lyme disease serologic testing. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37:3718–21.

101. 

American College of Physicians. Guidelines for laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127:1106–8. 

102. 

Tugwell P, Dennis DT, Weinstein A, et al. Clinical guideline, part 2: laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127:1109–23. 

103. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wang G, Schwartz I, Wormser GP. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 18:484–509.  

104. 

Seltzer EG, Shapiro ED. Misdiagnosis of Lyme disease: when not to order serologic tests. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:762–3.  

105. 

Poland GA, Jacobson RM. The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine. Vaccine 2001; 19:2303–8. 



EARLY LYME DISEASE

65. 

Wormser GP, Masters E, Nowakowski J, et al. Prospective clinical evaluation of patients from Missouri and New York with erythema migrans–like skin lesions. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:958–65.  

90. 

Berger BW. Dermatologic manifestations of Lyme disease. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11(Suppl 6):S1475–81. 

91. 

Nadelman RB, Nowakowski J, Forseter G, et al. The clinical spectrum of early Lyme borreliosis in patients with culture positive erythema migrans. Am J Med 1996; 100:502–8. 

92. 

Melski JW, Reed KD, Mitchell PD, Barth GD. Primary and secondary erythema migrans in central Wisconsin. Arch Dermatol 1993; 129:709–16.  

93. 

Steere AC, Bartenhagen NH, Craft JE, et al. The early clinical manifestations of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99:76–82.

94. 

Bakken JS, Krueth J, Wilson-Nordskog C, Tilden RL, Asanovich K, Dumler JS. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. JAMA 1996; 275:199–205.  

95. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Horowitz HW, Wormser GP, et al. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: a case series from a single medical center in New York State. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125:904–8. 

96. 

White DJ, Talarico J, Chang H-G, Birkhead GS, Heimberger T, Morse DL. Human babesiosis in New York State: review of 139 hospitalized cases and analysis of prognostic factors. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:2149–54. 

97. 

Steere AC, Sikand VK, Schoen RT, Nowakowski J. Asymptomatic infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37:528–32.  

98. 

Brown SL, Hansen SL, Langone JJ. Role of serology in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. JAMA 1999; 282:62–6. 

99. 

Wormser GP, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Nadelman RB. Lyme disease serology: problems and opportunities. JAMA 1999; 282:79–80. 

100. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Roberge J, Carbonaro CA, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Effects of Osp A vaccination on Lyme disease serologic testing. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37:3718–21. 

101. 

American College of Physicians. Guidelines for laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127:1106–8. 

102. 

Tugwell P, Dennis DT, Weinstein A, et al. Clinical guideline, part 2: laboratory evaluation in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 1997; 127:1109–23. 

103. 

Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wang G, Schwartz I, Wormser GP. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005; 18:484–509.  

104. 

Seltzer EG, Shapiro ED. Misdiagnosis of Lyme disease: when not to order serologic tests. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:762–3.  

105. 

Poland GA, Jacobson RM. The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine. Vaccine 2001; 19:2303–8.  

106. 

Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Erythema migrans and early Lyme disease. Am J Med 1995; 98(Suppl 4A):15S–24S.  

107. 

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:586–96.

108. 

Nadelman RB, Wormser GP. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 1998; 352:557–65.

109. 

Stanek G, Strle F. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 2003; 362:1639–47. 

110. 

Smith RP, Schoen RT, Rahn DW, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of early Lyme disease in patients with microbiologically confirmed erythema migrans. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136:421–8. 

111. 

Steere AC. Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:115–25. 

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance: Lyme disease (revised 9/96). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1997; 46(RR-10):1–51. 

113. 

Wormser GP, McKenna D, Carlin J, et al. Brief communication: hematogenous dissemination in early Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:751–5. 

114. 

Wormser GP. Clinical practice: early Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:2794–801. 

115. 

Goldberg NS, Forseter G, Nadelman RB, et al. Vesicular erythema migrans. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128:1495–8.

116. 

Nowakowski J, Schwartz I, Liveris D, et al. Laboratory diagnostic techniques for patients with early Lyme disease associated with erythema migrans: a comparison of different techniques. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33:2023–7. 

117. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995; 44:590–1. 

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notice to readers: caution regarding testing for Lyme disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 54:125–6. 

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121. 

Johnson BJ, Robbins KE, Bailey RE, et al. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease: accuracy of a two-step approach using flagella-based ELISA and immunoblotting. J Infect Dis 1996; 174:346–53. 

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Hilton E, DeVoti J, Benach JL, et al. Seroprevalence and seroconversion for tick-borne diseases in a high-risk population in the northeast United States. Am J Med 1999; 106:404–9.

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Coulter P, Lema C, Flayhart D, et al. Two-year evaluation of Borrelia burgdorferi culture and supplemental tests for definitive diagnosis of Lyme disease. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43:5080–4. 

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Dumler JS. Molecular diagnosis of Lyme disease: review and meta-analysis. Mol Diagn 2001; 6:1–11. 

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Agger WA, Callister SM, Jobe DA. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992; 36:1788–90. 

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Mursic VP, Wilske B, Schierz G, Holmburger M, Sub E. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi. Eur J Clin Microbiol 1987; 6:424–6. 

127. 

Johnson SE, Klein GC, Schmid GP, Feeley JC. Susceptibility of the Lyme disease spirochete to seven antimicrobial agents. Yale J Biol Med 1984; 57:549–53. 

128. 

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